A novel approach is proposed to achieve simulta- neous localization and mapping (SLAM) based on the signal-to- noise ratio (SNR) of global navigation satellite system (GNSS) signals. It is assumed that the environment is unknown and that the receiver location measurements (provided by a GNSS receiver) are noisy. The 3D environment map is decomposed into a grid of binary-state cells (occupancy grid) and the receiver locations are approximated by sets of particles. Using a large number of sparsely sampled GNSS SNR measurements and receiver/satellite coordinates (all available from off-the-shelf GNSS receivers), likelihoods of blockage are associated with every receiver-to-satellite beam. The posterior distribution of the map and poses is shown to represent a factor graph, on which Loopy Belief Propagation is used to efficiently estimate the probabilities of each cell being occupied or empty, along with the probability of the particles for each receiver location. Experimental results demonstrate our algorithm’s ability to coarsely map (in three dimensions) a corner of a university campus, while also correcting for uncertainties in the location of the GNSS receiver.
Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation
Date: June, 2014