Accurate measurements of the abundances, synthesis rates and degradation rates of cellular proteins are critical for understanding how cells and organisms respond to changes in their environments. Over the past two decades, there has been increasing interest in the use of mass spectrometry for proteomic analysis. In many systems, however, protein diversity as well as cell and tissue heterogeneity limit the usefulness of mass spectrometry-based proteomics. As a result, researchers have had difficulty in systematically identifying proteins expressed within specified time intervals, or low abundance proteins expressed in specific tissues or in a few cells in complex microbial systems. In this review, we present recently-developed tools and strategies that probe these two subsets of the proteome: proteins synthesized during well-defined time intervals--temporally resolved proteomics--and proteins expressed in predetermined cell types, cells or cellular compartments--spatially resolved proteomics--with a focus on chemical and biological mass spectrometry-based methodologies.