Microbiome interactions shape host fitness
All animals have associated microbial communities called microbiomes that influence the physiology and fitness of their host. It is unclear to what extent individual microbial species versus interactions between them influence the host. Here, we mapped all possible interactions between individual species of bacteria against Drosophila melanogaster fruit fly fitness traits. Our approach revealed that the same bacterial interactions that shape microbiome abundances also shape host fitness traits. The fitness traits of lifespan and fecundity showed a life history tradeoff, where equal total fitness can be gotten by either high fecundity over a short life or low fecundity over a long life. The microbiome interactions are as important as the individual species in shaping these fundamental aspects of fly physiology.