Quasiordered, subwavelength TiO2 hole arrays with tunable, omnidirectional color response


Fabrication, optical characterization, and simulation of subwavelength TiO2 hole arrays exhibiting geometry-tunable, omnidirectional color response across the visible spectrum is described. Partially suspended TiO2 grating “membranes” (hole arrays supported by a high void-fraction, low-index underlayer) with quasiperiodic hexagonal order were created on an Si substrate using colloidal lithography, metal mask, plasma-based pattern transfer, and XeF2etching. Optical measurements under specular and diffuse reflection conditions, along with finite-difference time-domain simulations, indicated that the omnidirectional color response of the hole arrays emerges from a broad distribution of Fano resonance states formed by coupling between guided and internal Fabry–Pérot (FP) cavity modes of the TiO2layer. Higher-order FP resonances from the external cavity formed between the TiO2 layer and substrate control the apparent color when devices are viewed in direct light. The simulated modal behavior of arrays was found to be very sensitive to the degree of Si removal from the underlayer, in agreement with experimental observations. The fabrication methodology presented herein is substrate-agnostic and can be employed to fabricate suspended, subwavelength hole arrays in many material systems, with potential application to optical filters and reflectors, photocatalytic electrodes, photovoltaics, and sensors.



ICB Affiliated Authors

P. Shapturenka, F. Birkholz, N.I. Zakaria, S.P. DenBaars, and M.J. Gordon
Peer-Reviewed Article
Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology (JVST)
A 38